Rhus michauxii – If You Burn It, They May Come

The beneficial effects of controlled burns have been discussed in a previous article:

http://bwwellsassociation.wordpress.com/2013/09/20/prescribed-burns-aid-the-hoary-puccoon-lithospermum-canescens/

In that article, well planned, prescribed burns led to a large increase in numbers and a significant range extension for a population of Hoary Puccoon (Lithospermum canescens).  Rarely, prescribed burns can even lead to the appearance of fire-tolerant species that were previously unknown to the area and location.  So it was that Rhus michauxii (Michaux’s Sumac) appeared in a preserve managed by the state Plant Conservation Program.  A previously undisturbed area of the preserve had been cleared and burned, and a few months later, a population of Rhus michauxii was discovered.  The discovery was unanticipated and extremely fortunate, for Rhus michauxii is one of the rarest shrubs in the Southeast, and is a State and Federally listed Endangered Species.

Rhus michauxii is a short, densely pubescent shrub in the Sumac family (Anacardiaceae). It requires the light of open spaces, and prefers basic soils.  The long divided leaves are distinctly serrated at the margins.

Rhus michauxii Michaux's Sumac

Rhus michauxii
Michaux’s Sumac

The dense hairs can even be seen in the central leaflet veins.  The dense hairs and short stature help to separate Michaux’s Sumac from the more common sumacs in the state.

Rhus michauxii Michaux's Sumac Dense Hairs on Stem and Leaves

Rhus michauxii
Michaux’s Sumac
Dense Hairs on Stem and Leaves

There are a complex number of factors that explain the endangered status of Rhus michauxii.  Certainly fire suppression and habitat destruction have a huge impact on the plant’s populations.  The thick coated seeds have been described as “super tough” and are nearly impossible to germinate in the laboratory, except by manual scarification.  Conventional thinking has been that seeds in native habitats germinate following the intense heat of natural fires.  So far, however,  attempts to simulate natural fires by exposing seeds in the laboratory to various levels of heat over different time intervals have failed to cause germination.

Poor reproductive capacity is another very important factor.  Most known populations are either all male or all female.  So far, all the flowering plants in the newly discovered  population have been male.    The following three photos show the progression of early budding into flowering.

Rhus michauxii Michaux's Sumac Early Budding

Rhus michauxii
Michaux’s Sumac
Early Budding

Rhus michauxii Michaux's Sumac Early Budding

Rhus michauxii
Michaux’s Sumac
Early Budding

Rhus michauxii Michaux's Sumac Flowers

Rhus michauxii
Michaux’s Sumac
Flowers

MALE  FLOWERS

The stamens can be seen best in a closer view.  There are five stamens in each male flower.

Rhus michauxii Michaux's Sumac Male Flower

Rhus michauxii
Michaux’s Sumac
Male Flower

The largest known population of Rhus michauxii is found at the Virginia Army National Guard, Maneuver Training Center, Fort Pickett, Virginia.  Live-fire training with small arms, tanks and artillery have been  ongoing at this facility for the past 50+ years.  Most of the R. michauxii colonies are found in a buffer zone for the live-fire ranges.  The rounds fired on the ranges result in wildfires that burn the buffer zone once or twice a year.  Ironically, the plants there lie in an ecological “sweet spot” where they are not injured by the live-fire action, but benefit from the wildfires generated around them.

Herb Amyx

 

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Hiding in Plain Sight – The Dwarf Pawpaw – Asimina parviflora (Part 2)

As the natural history field trip was concluding, the group moved into a small clearing in the forest to hear final comments from the trip leader.  Underfoot, slightly trampled and unrecognized, were a small group of Dwarf Pawpaws.  The day would conclude without their appearance on any of the plant lists.

Overlooking Dwarf Pawpaws is completely understandable.  They are inconspicuous, and blend in with the seedling and young sapling trees that dot the forest floor.   As mentioned in Part 1, the flowers and fruit are uncommon and can be difficult to see even when present.  As a consequence, most of the time identification relies on the leaves and twigs.

TWIGS

In the spring and early summer, the twigs of the Dwarf Pawpaw (Asimina parviflora) may have a distinctive yellow or light rusty color that is not present in the other neighboring plants.  This characteristic varies among Dwarf Pawpaw populations,  and tends to fade in the late summer and fall.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Yellow Twigs

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Yellow Twigs

The Dwarf Pawpaw, like the Common Pawpaw (Asimina triloba), has a naked terminal bud, meaning that the leaf bud does not have protective scales or a cap; the tip of the leaf is exposed.  This is perhaps the trait most specific to pawpaws and separates them from most of their neighbors.  This trait can be difficult to see properly in the Dwarf Pawpaw without some magnification.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Naked Terminal Bud

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Naked Terminal Bud

LEAVES

Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) and Black Gum (Nyssa sylvatica) are two of the species whose young offspring are most commonly confused with Dwarf Pawpaw.  In fact they are often confused with each other.  Like most plants that grow on a mature oak-hickory forest floor, their leaves are wide and broad.

The following photos illustrate typical leaves of Persimmon, Black Gum, and Dwarf Pawpaw, with the first being Persimmon.

Diospyros virginiana Persimmon Leaves

Diospyros virginiana
Persimmon
Leaves

Black Gum

Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Leaves

Nyssa sylvatica
Black Gum
Leaves

Nyssa sylvatica Black Gum Leaf

Nyssa sylvatica
Black Gum
Leaf

And finally Dwarf Pawpaw:

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Leaves

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Leaves

Asimina parviflora  Dwarf Pawpaw Leaves

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Leaves

The three plants pictured above all have alternate leaves, smooth leaf surfaces and margins, and acuminate tips.  They are all approximately the same size.  It can be very difficult to tell them apart when walking through an area and just glancing down.  It often requires a much closer look.

Below they are pictured side by side.

Comparison of Dwarf Pawpaw, Persimmon, and Black Gum Leaves

Comparison of Dwarf Pawpaw, Persimmon, and Black Gum Leaves

The two leaves on the left are Dwarf Pawpaw.  They are more broadly obovate than the  others and have a smaller acuminate tip.  The widest part of the leaf is beyond the center and toward the tip.

The two leaves in the center are Persimmon.  They are ovate, not obovate, with the widest part of the leaf occurring in the center of the leaf.

The two leaves on the right are Black Gum.  They are variably oblong, but some may be obovate, as in the one on the far right.  Black Gum leaves occasionally have teeth in the remote part of the leaf, and the acuminate tip is usually longer than the Dwarf Pawpaw tip.

The more plants there are in an area, and the more leaves they have, the more likely it is that a distinctive and recognizable trait will be seen.

In summary, helpful tips for identifying Dwarf Pawpaws are:

1  Unique flowers and fruit ( when present, which is rarely)

2  Bright yellow fall foliage

3  Bright yellow to rusty twigs in the spring and early summer

4  Naked terminal buds  (Probably the best field trait)

5  Alternate, obovate leaves with smooth surfaces and margins, and a short acuminate tip

6  Primary habitat of dry, oak-hickory forests

At first glance, the understory of a hardwood forest may appear as a monoculture of small trees and shrubs.  Taking a little time to learn plants like the Dwarf Pawpaw and its neighbors adds a new dimension to a walk through the woods and helps us to appreciate the diversity that can be found there.

Herb Amyx

 

 

 

 

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Hiding in Plain Sight – The Dwarf Pawpaw – Asimina parviflora (Part 1)

The Dwarf Pawpaw (Asimina parviflora) has a wide but scattered distribution throughout the dry, oak-hickory forests of the Falls Lake State Recreation Area, in the central Piedmont of North Carolina.  At the B. W. Wells S.R.A., a small cluster of Dwarf Pawpaws is located in a wooded area within sight of the Wells’ home at Rockcliff Farm.  Some of the largest numbers occur at the Shinleaf S.R.A., where they can be found as small clusters or as widely scattered individual shrubs in the group camping area and along roadsides.  They often go unrecognized because they blend in perfectly with small groups of tree saplings that dot the forest floor.  In fact, they are one of the most commonly overlooked or misidentified small shrubs in the Piedmont.

Most plants are only a foot or two high, but some can reach four feet or more.  Below is a typical, small plant .  The leaves are alternate and the leaf shape is obovate with variably acuminate tips.  Obovate means roughly egg-shaped, with the narrower end toward the stalk.  Acuminate means that the leaf tip tapers to a narrow point, sometimes with a twist at the tip.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw

Next is a slightly larger plant with downcast leaves, a common appearance.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw

In the fall, the leaves turn a bright yellow, which makes it much easier to locate against the flora of the forest.  This shrub is about 3 1/2  feet tall.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw

Dwarf Pawpaws are very poor fruit producing plants, but when the fruits (technically berries) are present and mature, they stand out nicely.  Their unique appearance quickly identifies the shrub as a pawpaw.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw with Fruit

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw with Fruit

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw with Fruit

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw with Fruit

Asimina parviflora  Dwarf Pawpaw Fruit

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Fruit

Dwarf Pawpaws are members of the Custard Apple family, the Annonaceae, which are mostly tropical in distribution.  They and their larger relative the Common Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) are some of the few species in the family to be found in temperate regions.  The edible  fruit is soft and yellow, reminiscent of  the texture and color of custard.  The fruit of the Dwarf Pawpaw is similar to that of the Common Pawpaw, except, of course, much smaller.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Fruit

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Fruit

The seeds are pictured below against a sheet of ruled notebook paper.  The seeds may take two years to germinate.  The young plants grow very slowy, developing an enormously long tap root before putting energy into the growth of the upper plant structure.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Seeds

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Seeds

Another common name for the Dwarf Pawpaw is Smallflower Pawpaw.  As the name implies, the flowers are very small and are seen even less often than the fruit.  The flowers are said to have an obnoxious odor and are visited by flies.  The flowers are green as they first open and then gradually turn dark purple to maroon.

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Flowers

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Flowers

Asimina parviflora Dwarf Pawpaw Flower

Asimina parviflora
Dwarf Pawpaw
Flower

While the presence of fruit or flowers on a Dwarf Pawpaw aids greatly in identification,  they are not present in the vast majority of plants seen in North Carolina.  Part 2 will focus on leaf shape and the small saplings that resemble pawpaws on the forest floor.

 

Herb Amyx

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Picture Creek Diabase Barrens

Last weekend, members of the B. W. Wells Association and the Friends of Plant Conservation toured the Picture Creek Diabase Barrens in Granville County, North Carolina.  The field trip was sponsored by Rob Evans and the state Plant Conservation Program and was led by Harry LeGrand of the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program and Rob.  Dr. LeGrand has a long history with Picture Creek and was recently honored when a new species of Marshallia, which he discovered there, was named for him.

Harry LeGrand is on the left with the orange cap in the photograph below.

Briefing for the Field Trip-Picture Creek Diabase Barrens

Briefing for the Field Trip – Picture Creek Diabase Barrens

The Picture Creek Diabase Barrens is characterized as a small remnant of what was once a widespread Piedmont Prairie.  Its 407 acres are home to a large number of plants that are listed as rare, endangered or threatened.  Thus it is considered a Nationally Significant natural area.  The occurrence of so many unique plants in this site is due primarily to the relatively rare mafic soils that are associated with shallow incursions of diabase rock.  Over the past years, prescribed burns have been added to improve the habitat for rare species.

Picture Creek is probably best known for  the federally endangered Smooth Coneflower - Echinacea laevigata.  The population here is the largest known in the world.  This year, the population at Picture Creek was just beginning to bloom; the two photos below are from a previous year at the same time and place.

Echinacea laevigata Smooth Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata
Smooth Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata Smooth Coneflower

Echinacea laevigata
Smooth Coneflower

Although the new species of MarshalliaMarshallia legrandii (Tall Barbara’s-buttons) – is not federally listed yet, it is a significantly rare plant, with only 2 known populations in existence, one at Picture Creek and one in Halifax County, Virginia, on similar mafic soil.

The separation of a new species may sometimes be based on significant but subtle differences in structure and behavior that might not be readily visible.  But  Marshallia legrandii is easily distinguished from its neighboring relatives by its greater height (hence the name Tall Barbara’s-buttons), large flower size, and its much deeper pink flower coloration.   It also blooms almost a month later than its nearest relatives.

Below is a photograph of the flower of  a common Marshallia in this area of the Piedmont – Marshallia obovata.   It has been blooming for the last week or two.  Note the small hints of pink or purple on some of the petals and the small size of the flower.

Marshallia obovata Spoonshape Barbara's-buttons

Marshallia obovata
Spoonshape Barbara’s-buttons

In contrast, Marshallia legrandii has a larger flower and much deeper pink or purple coloration on the petals.  It is not blooming yet this year, so the photos are from a previous year in the same location.

Marshallia legrandii Tall Barbara's-buttons

Marshallia legrandii
Tall Barbara’s-buttons

Marshallia legrandii Tall Barbara's-buttons

Marshallia legrandii
Tall Barbara’s-buttons

 Baptisia australis var. aberrans (Eastern Prairie Blue Wild Indigo) was in full bloom in the open glades.  In the photo directly below, the large leaves of Silphium terebinthinaceum (Prairie Dock) can be seen directly behind the Wild Indigo.   Both are state protected plants.

Baptisia australis var. aberrans Eastern Prairie Blue Wild Indigo

Baptisia australis var. aberrans
Eastern Prairie Blue Wild Indigo

A closer view of the blooms of the Wild Indigo.

Baptisia australis var. aberrans Eastern Prairie Blue Wild Indigo

Baptisia australis var. aberrans
Eastern Prairie Wild Blue Indigo

Phlox glaberrima (Smooth Phlox) was also blooming in good numbers in the open glades.  This is one of the many species that have thrived and expanded since prescription burns were resumed at Picture Creek.   Although it is not a state protected plant, it is uncommon in the Piedmont.

Phlox glaberrima  Smooth Phlox

Phlox glaberrima
Smooth Phlox

The woodland edges get enough sun from the open glades to allow shrubs like Rhus aromatica (Fragrant Sumac) to bloom and produce berries.  Pictured below are the bright red berries of Fragrant Sumac, a sight not often seen in the shaded woodlands.  Notice the hirsute (fuzzy, hairy) nature of the berries.

Rhus aromatica Fragrant Sumac Berries

Rhus aromatica
Fragrant Sumac
Berries

Blephilia ciliata  is a woodmint that specifically thrives on diabase soils.  In fact, one of its common names is Diabase Woodmint.  It is also known as Pagoda Plant, and Downy Wood Mint.

Blephilia ciliata Diabase Woodmint

Blephilia ciliata
Diabase Woodmint

The Picture Creek Diabase Barrens is owned by the State Department of Agriculture and managed by cooperating divisions within the Department.  There is also a long history of assistance from the Natural Heritage Program and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.  Further management steps are still ahead, to enable this unique prairie remnant to be preserved and  restored.

Herb Amyx

 

 

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Modiola caroliniana – Carolina Bristlemallow

Modiola caroliniana comes from a large and diverse plant family, the Mallows (Malvaceae).   The family includes 243 genera; trees like the basswood, foods like okra, the globally important crop – cotton, the large flowered Hibiscus genus,  and  lowly lawn weeds like the Carolina Bristlemallow.  The latter does have beautiful flowers.  But they are tiny – less than one half inch across.

Modiola caroliniana Carolina Bristlemallow Flower

Modiola caroliniana
Carolina Bristlemallow
Flower

Modiola caroliniana is somewhat of an outlier – it is a monotypic genus, meaning that there is only one species in the genus.   And it does not have some of the major characteristics of the rest of the family.   The flowers of the Mallow family are usually large and the stamens and style protrude from the center of the flower.  This is illustrated by the photographs below of Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (Saltmarsh Mallow) and Hibiscus moscheutos (Crimsoneyed Rosemallow).   However, Modiola has tiny flowers and the stamens and style are not protrusive.

Kosteletzkya pentacarpos Saltmarsh Mallow Flower

Kosteletzkya pentacarpos
Saltmarsh Mallow
Flower

Hibiscus moscheutos Crimsoneyed Rosemallow Flower

Hibiscus moscheutos
Crimsoneyed Rosemallow
Flower

Modiola also has an odd distribution in North Carolina.  It is almost absent from the Mountains and the Coastal Plain, and is reported from only two small, disconnected  clusters of counties in the Piedmont region.  It is native to North America and can be either a perennial or an annual.  Well adapted to its niche of lawns and disturbed areas,  it is a prostrate, spreading plant that roots at the nodes.

Early leaves are not yet deeply cut, but have a rounded appearance.  The hairy bristles can be seen along the stems.

Modiola caroliniana Carolina Bristlemallow Early Leaves

Modiola caroliniana
Carolina Bristlemallow
Early Leaves

Leaves that appear later in the spring can be deeply divided.  Bristles can be seen on the bracts of the opening flower bud.

Modiola caroliniana Carolina Bristlemallow Divided Leaf and Flower Bud

Modiola caroliniana
Carolina Bristlemallow
Divided Leaf and Flower Bud

The fruiting head has a wheel-like appearance.  Thus the botanical name for the genus is based on the Latin for the hub of a wheel – modiolus.

Modiola caroliniana Carolina Bristlemallow Fruit

Modiola caroliniana
Carolina Bristlemallow
Fruit

In a closer view of the center of the flower,  the deep red nectar guides can be seen.  Nectar guides are markings or colors that assist the pollinators in finding either nectar or pollen.  In sunny conditions, the nectar guides in Modiola can be vivid and striking.   The Common Checkered Skipper, the major pollinator, has no difficulty locating this tiny, bright orange flower.

Modiola caroliniana Carolina Bristlemallow Flower with Nectar Guides

Modiola caroliniana
Carolina Bristlemallow
Flower with Nectar Guides

Herb Amyx

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Southern Chervil (Chaerophyllum tainturieri) at Falls Lake

Southern Chervil – Chaerophyllum tainturieri - is a common wildflower and is widely distributed throughout North Carolina. Thus it seems odd that it is overlooked by many of the popular wildflower field guides including Newcomb’s and  Peterson’s field guides, and Wild Flowers of North Carolina.  Some consider it a weed, but it is missing from Bryson and DeFelice’s Weeds of the South.  It is found in a field guide to the Northeastern states – Clements and Gracie’s Wildflowers in the Field and Forest.  It is a plant with beautiful foliage but very tiny flowers, which may be why it is often overlooked.

Southern Chervil is a native annual which is also called Hairyfruit Chervil and Southern Wild Chervil.  It is reliably found in disturbed areas and roadsides right at the Falls Lake Dam, and often along greenways throughout the Falls Lake area.  It is a true winter annual, and its delicate, highly dissected leaves are a welcome contrast to the pine needles and brown leaves of winter, as shown in the following photograph taken in February.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Southern Chervil Winter Foliage

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil

In spring, the growth of foliage is explosive and the plant takes on a fern-like appearance.  Southern Chervil is a member of the carrot family (Apiaceae) and serves as a host to Black Swallowtail caterpillars that feed on the fine foliage.    Note the tiny white flowers against the green background.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri  Southern Chervil   Spring Foliage

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil
Spring Foliage

The foliage sometimes turns red and does so surprisingly early.  The following photo was taken last year in mid May.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri  Southern Chervil Red Color

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil
Red Color

Southern Chervil is a pilose (fuzzy) plant, with fine hairs covering the leaves and stems.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Southern Chervil Pilose Stem

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil
Pilose Stem

Close observation and excellent vision are required to see the 5 petals on the tiny, white flowers held in compound umbels.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Southern Chervil Flowers

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil Flowers

The next two photographs provide closer views of the flowers.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Southern Chervil Close View of Flowers

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil
Close View of Flowers

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Southern Chervil Close View of Flowers

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil
Close View of Flowers

The upright fruits are distinctive and help to identify the plant as a Chervil at an easy distance.

Chaerophyllum tainturieri Southern Chervil Fruits

Chaerophyllum tainturieri
Southern Chervil
Fruits

The garden culinary herb known as chervil comes from an entirely different plant:  Anthriscus cerefolium.  It is not native to North America but is grown here in gardens and sometimes escapes cultivation.  It has not been reported from North Carolina.  Southern Chervil is generally not used as a substitute for garden chervil.

Herb Amyx

 

 

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The Parsley Hawthorn – Crataegus marshallii

Hawthorns are a diverse group of native small trees/large shrubs with bright, white flowers in spring and red berries in the fall.  They are a confusing group (Genus Crataegus) to classify, and accurate species  identification is often left to specialists.  According to The Sibley Guide to Trees, botanists of 100 years past listed 1,100 species of Hawthorns in North America.  In recent times, cooler heads have prevailed, and current thinking is somewhere in the neighborhood of 100 species.

Fortunately there are a few species of Hawthorns that are relatively  easy to identify.  One of these is the Parsley Hawthorn (Crataegus marshallii), named for its deeply cut leaves that resemble the leaves of parsley.  The leaves are unique for a Hawthorn, and serve to separate it from its close relatives.

Crataegus marshallii           Leaves

Crataegus marshallii
Leaves

Crataegus marshallii Deeply Cut Leaves

Crataegus marshallii
Deeply Cut Leaves

Compare the leaves of the Parsley Hawthorn to several other Crataegus sp. Hawthorns found in the Falls Lake area and illustrated below.

Crataegus sp. Hawthorn

Crataegus sp. Hawthorn

A Crataegus sp. Hawthorn

A Crataegus sp. Hawthorn

The Parsley Hawthorn is a tree of the Southeastern United States, and is primarily a Piedmont species in North Carolina, avoiding the Mountains and the Coastal Plain.  It is a member of the Rose family (Rosaceae) and has plenty of thorns on its trunk and twigs.

Crataegus marshallii        Trunk

Crataegus marshallii
Trunk

Crataegus marshallii       Twig Thorns

Crataegus marshallii
Twig Thorns

Buds are formed in late March to early April, and take several weeks to develop and bloom.   As the blooms open, the striking pink-raspberry anthems stand out against the white petals.

Crataegus marshallii Flower Buds

Crataegus marshallii
Flower Buds

Crataegus marshallii Flower Buds

Crataegus marshallii
Flower Buds

Crataegus marshallii Flower opening

Crataegus marshallii
Flower opening

Crataegus marshallii Buds Opening  Into Bloom

Crataegus marshallii
Buds Opening
Into Bloom

The five-petaled white flowers bloom in corymbs, and usually have 2 styles and 15 to 20 stamens.  As the anthers age, they change from the pink- raspberry color to black.  Below is a corymb of flowers blooming with the typical parsley-like leaves in the background.  The blooms are very small – less than an inch across.

Crataegus marshallii  Flowers in Corymbs

Crataegus marshallii
Flowers in Corymbs

In the close photo below, the 2 green styles can be seen at the center, surrounded by the stamens.

Crataegus marshallii      Close View of Bloom

Crataegus marshallii
Close View of Bloom

Below is the flower in profile with the two green styles visible among the stamens.

Crataegus marshallii Close Profile of Flower

Crataegus marshallii
Close Profile of Flower

The Parsley Hawthorn seen blooming below is about 15 feet tall and lies in the outer flood plain of the Neuse River, along the Neuse River Trail.  A red arrow points to the trunk of the tree.  The foliage has grown reaching for more sun, which gives the tree an off-balance appearance.    Most of the photographs above were taken from this tree.

Crataegus marshallii Parsley Hawthorn

Crataegus marshallii
Parsley Hawthorn

Herb Amyx

 

 

 

 

 

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