A Variety of Autumn Colors at Falls Lake

As a shade loving, understory tree, Carpinus caroliniana, known as American Hornbeam or Ironwood, is rarely seen as a colorful autumn tree.  But given the right circumstances, particularly enough sun, the normal pale yellow leaves can be replaced by bright red.  The tree below grows right at the forest edge where it gets a long exposure to morning sun.

Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam Autumn Color

Carpinus caroliniana
American Hornbeam
Autumn Color

Hawthorn trees are well known for bright fall colors.  The Parsley Hawthorn (Crataegus marshallii) shown below also has a large crop of  berries to go along with the changing leaf colors.  The second photo also illustrates the unique, deeply cleft leaves that are characteristic of this species.

Crataegus marshallii Parsley Hawthorn Heavy Crop of Berries

Crataegus marshallii
Parsley Hawthorn
Heavy Crop of Berries

Crataegus marshallii Parsley Hawthorn Berries and  Unique Leaves

Crataegus marshallii
Parsley Hawthorn
Berries and Unique Leaves

During the autumn when large asters and goldenrods are flowering in the fields, it is easy to miss the blooms of the very small plants that live only a few inches above the soil.  Storksbill, a close relative of our common Carolina Cranesbill, normally blooms in the summer, but individual plants, like this one, may bloom much later.   Storksbill (Erodium cicutarium) is a naturalized, non-native plant with considerable invasive potential.  It is uncommon in the Falls Lake area.  It can be separated  from Carolina Cranesbill (Geranium carolinianum) by its unusual leaves and very long seed pods.  The leaves of Storksbill are compound and resemble a fern or feather.  Cranesbill leaves are deeply cut and palmate in form.

Erodium cicutarium Storksbill Flowers and Fruit

Erodium cicutarium
Storksbill
Flowers and Fruit

Erodium cicutarium Cranesbill Compound Leaves

Erodium cicutarium
Storksbill
Compound Leaves

Porcelainberry (Ampelopsis brevipedunculata) has recently joined the army of invasives laying siege to the Falls Lake Dam.  The colorful pink and blue berries provide an atypical fall color in early November.  It is a member of the grape family (Vitaceae) and its leaves closely resemble wild grape leaves.

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Porcelainberry Leaves and Berries

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata
Porcelainberry
Leaves and Berries

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Porcelainberry Berries

Ampelopsis brevipedunculata
Porcelainberry
Berries

The Frost Aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, is one of the most common, widespread, and familiar autumn plants in Eastern North America.  It is so widespread that it has been given many colorful regional names: Hairy White Oldfield Aster, Hairy Aster, Heath Aster, and Frost Aster.   Plants can range greatly in size, and large clusters are often seen along rural roadsides and fields, as illustrated below.

Symphyotrichum pilosum Frost Aster Clump of Plants

Symphyotrichum pilosum
Frost Aster
Clump of Plants

A close look at an individual Frost Aster reveals the extremely pilose ( long, soft hairs ) nature of the plants.  Fine hairs can be seen covering the stem and the margins of the leaves.   Plants can be so hairy that in the early morning dew they appear to be covered in frost – hence the common name Frost Aster.

Symphyotrichum pilosum Frost Aster Leaves and Stem

Symphyotrichum pilosum
Frost Aster
Leaves and Stem

Solidago altissima, the Tall Goldenrod, is one of the most dominant and familiar fall perennials in Eastern North America.  The tall masses of these flowers in open fields, roadsides and powerlines add a bright golden hue to the autumn landscape throughout North Carolina.

Solidago altissima Tall Goldenrod Plant Form

Solidago altissima
Tall Goldenrod
Plant Form

Rhus aromatica, Fragrant Sumac, is generally found in full or partial shade, but needs only a few hours of sun to express  bright red fall colors.   Cultivated varieties are popular in horticultural landscape plantings because they are less invasive than most sumacs, retain a compact shape, and can be bred for spectacular deep red foliage that persists for weeks.

Rhus aromatica Fragrant Sumac

Rhus aromatica
Fragrant Sumac

Herb Amyx

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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The First Week of November

“When you go outside to enjoy the crispness of this first week of
November see if you find:

Witch Hazel blooming
http://www.ncwildflower.org/index.php/plants/details/hamamelis-virginiana/

Some Water Striders, Orb Weavers (spiders) and Crickets around. Some
cricket call heard mid-morning
http://ifasgallery.ifas.ufl.edu/entnem/walker/buzz/529sl.wav
I’ve seen some Marbled Orbweavers still hanging on.
http://173.254.8.192/photos/fromNRID.php?pid=1181&size=640&source=

Orb Weaver Spider

Orbweaver Spider

Some Box Turtle and salamander sightings
http://www.herpsofnc.org/herps_of_NC/salamanders/Eurcir/Eur_cir.html

Great Horned Owls calling in late afternoon and on cloudy days
http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Great_Horned_Owl/id

Mammals preparing for winter

The above list is from The Piedmont Almanac – The Central Region: A
Guide to the Natural World by Dave Cook.

Some of the persimmons are tasting good. Might be a good time to find
your stand.

Get outside! The leaf color around here right now is stunning!

Have fun outside!”

Dana Fitz-Simons

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The Unusual Symmetry of Facelis retusa (Trampweed)

In some respects Facelis retusa, known as Trampweed, is a typical weed: a non-native, broadleaf winter annual that came to us from South America.  The term “weed” typically carries with it the connotation of a sprawling, undisciplined, rank and irregular plant.  But Facelis retusa is an exception to the majority, having a highly organized and regular growth form and pattern.

As seen in the photo below, seedling Trampweeds are about an inch across and have the regular,  pinwheel or pinecone shape that they retain until they bloom.  The leaves are short and blunt,  are wider at the tip than at the base, and end in a sharp point.  Trampweeds are also floccose, a botanical term meaning covered with tufts of white, wooly hairs – illustrated below.

Facelis retusa Trampweed Seedling Plant

Facelis retusa
Trampweed
Seedling Plant

Trampweeds often grow in clusters and tend to form colonies that merge into each other.

Facelis retusa Trampweed Multiple Plants

Facelis retusa
Trampweed
Multiple Plants

Below is a larger plant formed by the growth and branching  of at least two individual plants.

Facelis retusa Trampweed Continued Growth and Branching

Facelis retusa
Trampweed
Continued Growth and Branching

Colonies continue to grow and branch, and will eventually merge together into mats 3 or 4 feet across if left undisturbed.

Facelis retusa Trampweed Spreading Growth

Facelis retusa
Trampweed
Spreading Growth

Horticultural sedums sometimes have a similar form, making it difficult to recognize that invading Trampweeds are present.   A garden sedum is shown below.

Horticultural Sedum

Horticultural Sedum

Facelis retusa is a member of the aster family, the Asteraceae, and has flowers typical of many members of  that family.   The flower petals (the ray flowers) are absent, so the plants have only the disk flowers, which are small and delicate and resemble miniature paint brushes.  After the bloom the tiny seeds (achenes), attached to fine hairs, blow away in the breeze.  Tufts of fine, cottony hair can be seen on the ground around plants that are discharging seeds.

Facelis retusa Trampweed Flowering

Facelis retusa
Trampweed
Flowering

Trampweeds are very common in the Falls Lake area. All of the photographs were taken at the Falls Lake Dam, overlooking Falls Lake, or in the nearby area.     In an odd anomaly, distribution maps do not list Facelis retusa  in any of the Falls Lake counties or the counties surrounding them.  The best explanation for this may simply be a lack of interest;  no impetus to trigger the documentation of a new county plant.

Herb Amyx

 

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North Carolina’s Leaf-flowers: Phyllanthus caroliniensis and Phyllanthus urinaria

Phyllanthus caroliniensis , whose common name is Carolina Leaf-flower, is a native plant, a warm season annual that spreads rapidly and is considered a broadleaf weed.  It  characteristically likes wet areas like roadside ditches and low areas of lawn.  Carolina Leaf-flower has a traditional, uniform leaf and branching form, as shown in the photo below of a mature plant.  The leaves are widely spaced on the stems, so the plants never have a dense appearance.

Phyllanthus caroliniensis Carolina Leaf-flower Plant Form

Phyllanthus caroliniensis
Carolina Leaf-flower
Plant Form

This plant is often hard to recognize, because it rarely stands alone, as in the above shot.  More often it is part of a cluster of weeds and grasses and is difficult to separate visually from the foliage, as seen below.

Phyllanthus caroliniensis Carolina Leaf-flower Nestled Among Other Plants

Phyllanthus caroliniensis
Carolina Leaf-flower
Nestled Among Other Plants

The following is a closer view of the stem and leaf patterns.

Phyllanthus caroliniensis Carolina Leaf-flower Stems and Leaves

Phyllanthus caroliniensis
Carolina Leaf-flower
Stems and Leaves

Both of North Carolina’s Leaf-flowers are incredibly persistent.  This is partly due to the fact that they flower and produce fruit continuously from May into November.  The flowers are located at the leaf axils and are very tiny, as illustrated below.

Phyllanthus caroliniensis Carolina Leaf-flower Flower

Phyllanthus caroliniensis
Carolina Leaf-flower
Flower

Phyllanthus urinaria , a species introduced from Asia, is the second North Carolina Leaf-flower.  Its common name is Chamberbitter or Stonebreaker, due to its use as an herbal medication for urinary tract stones.  Its effectiveness as an herbal medication could be debated, but its classification as an extremely difficult WEED is unquestioned among gardeners.  It is a fast grower, is very drought tolerant, and it flowers and produces large quantities of fruit in just 2 weeks.  It is a warm season weed and does not usually germinate until May, which at least gives gardeners a break in the early spring.  The stems are tough, so the plant is relatively easy to pull out of the soil intact, but the root system hangs onto a large clot of soil when it is pulled.

The typical plant form is shown below.  It is commonly confused with Wild Sensitive Plant (Chamaecrista nictitans) and seedling Mimosa Trees (Albizzia julibrissin)

Phyllanthus urinaria Chamberbitter Plant Form

Phyllanthus urinaria
Chamberbitter
Plant Form

Its feathery, fine-leaved appearance makes it easier to see on the ground.  Also, it prefers the rich soils of gardens and greenway shoulders, where competition with weeds is reduced.

Phyllanthus urinaria  Chamberbitter Plant in Litter

Phyllanthus urinaria
Chamberbitter
Plant in Litter

A comparison of the plant form of both species is shown below.  On the left is Phyllanthus urinaria and on the right is Phyllanthus caroliniensis.  The leaves of P. urinaria are longer and more densely arrayed on the stems; the leaves of P. caroliniensis are ovoid and loosely arrayed on the stems.

L: Phyllanthus urinaria R: Phyllanthus caroliniensis

L: Phyllanthus urinaria
R: Phyllanthus caroliniensis

A closer comparison of the leaves follows:

L: Phyllanthus urinaria R: Phyllanthus caroliniensis Leaves

L: Phyllanthus urinaria
R: Phyllanthus caroliniensis
Leaves

Leaf-flowers were formerly placed in the Spurge Family (Euphorbiaceae) but now have been given their own family – Phyllanthaceae.  In spite of the appearance, the stem and leaves are not compound leaves with leaflets; what appear to be small leaflets are actually true leaves.   As a general rule, compound leaflets will not have flowers at the base.  Thus the common name “Leaf-flower” refers to the flowers at the base of true leaves.  Also, after the flower blooms, the retained calyx of the fruit looks a lot like a leaf, which contributes to the Leaf-flower name.

Herb Amyx

 

 

 

 

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Flowering Now in Central North Carolina: Verbesina occidentalis (Crownbeard) and Its Relatives

Verbesina occidentalis (Crownbeard) is arguably one of the most visible flowering plants in North Carolina.  The tall stems and yellow blooms of this native perennial are hard to miss due to the sheer numbers of plants blooming.  Crownbeard seems to be everywhere: in urban lots, suburban parks, and rural fields, ditches and roadsides.

Crownbeard is a tall plant, often over 6 feet, and has a very distinct, disheveled, almost ragged bloom.  The bright ray flowers are sparse and are not uniformly placed around the disk, making the bloom look uneven and out of balance.  Crownbeard has a distinctively winged stem and opposite leaves.  See the photographs below of the flowers and the opposite leaves and winged stem.

Verbesina occidentalis Crownbeard Flowers

Verbesina occidentalis
Crownbeard
Flowers

Verbesina occidentalis Crownbeard Leaf

Verbesina occidentalis
Crownbeard
Leaf

Verbesina occidentalis Crownbeard Opposite Leaves and Winged Stem

Verbesina occidentalis
Crownbeard
Opposite Leaves and Winged Stem

Verbesina alternifolia (Wingstem) is a close relative of Crownbeard and also has a distinctive winged stem, but its leaves are alternate.  It too is found in large numbers in central North Carolina, but it prefers wetter soils and tends to occur near rivers and streams.  However, Crownbeard and Wingstem sometimes appear together in powerlines and ditches.  From a distance, they look very much alike – tall stems and bright, yellow flowers.   But they are relatively easy to tell apart.  In addition to having alternate leaves, Wingstem also has a distinctive flower that looks a lot like the Green Headed Coneflower – Rudbeckia laciniata.   The center of Wingstem’s flower becomes prominent, while the ray petals gradually droop, giving it a coneflower-like appearance.  See below.

Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem Flowers

Verbesina alternifolia
Wingstem
Flowers

The disk flowers have fascinating curled, bifurcated stigmas, as shown below.

Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem Bifurcated, Curled Stigmas

Verbesina alternifolia
Wingstem
Bifurcated, Curled Stigmas

In older flowers, the rays droop even more and gradually hang straight down.

Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem Drooping Flower Rays

Verbesina alternifolia
Wingstem
Drooping Flower Rays

The alternate leaves and winged stems are shown below.

Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem Alternate Leaves and Winged Stem

Verbesina alternifolia
Wingstem
Alternate Leaves and Winged Stem

 

Verbesina alternifolia Wingstem Winged Stem

Verbesina alternifolia
Wingstem
Winged Stem

A third close relative, Verbesina virginica (Frostweed), is very similar to Wingstem, as both have a winged stem and alternate leaves.  It is  much less common than Wingstem and Crownbeard  in central North Carolina.  Frostweed is easiest to differentiate when it blooms, since its flowers are white rather than yellow.

Verbesina virginica Frostweed Flowers

Verbesina virginica
Frostweed
Flowers

Verbesina virginica Frostweed Closer View of Flowers

Verbesina virginica
Frostweed
Closer View of Flowers

Pictured below are the alternate leaves and the winged stem of Frostweed.  The wings of all three plants are formed by the continuation of the leaf petioles down the stem.  Petioles are the stalks that attach the leaf blade to the stem.  The petioles can be seen forming the wings in the photo below.

Verbesina virginica Frostweed Alternate Leaves and Winged Stem

Verbesina virginica
Frostweed
Alternate Leaves and Winged Stem

Frostweed has another fascinating property, one that is very rare.  In winter, under the right conditions of an overnight freeze, the protruding stems of Frostweed form ice sculptures as freezing water is extruded through the fibers of the stem.  This phenomenon has been popularly called crystallofolia.   These natural ice sculptures are amazingly beautiful and can be seen in the links below.

http://w3.biosci.utexas.edu/prc/VEVI3/crystallofolia.html

http://www.kuriositas.com/2012/12/frost-flowers-natures-exquisite-ice.html

Herb Amyx

 

 

 

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Distinguishing North Carolina’s Wild Barberries

The major Barberry species in North Carolina have many similarities, but their backgrounds are very different.  One (American Barberry)  is an important and rare native plant, with state protected status.  The other three (European, Wintergreen and Japanese Barberry) are introduced species which have become broadly naturalized in large parts of North America.  Field identification becomes important in protecting the American Barberry and controlling Japanese Barberry, which is invasive in some areas.  European Barberry has already been the target of a large scale eradication program, which has dramatically reduced its numbers.

American Barberry – Berberis   canadensis

In North Carolina, American Barberry is ranked as Imperiled, with a Special Concern- Vulnerable Status.   Part of its rarity is due to its predilection for unusual circumneutral soils over  diabase or limestone rock.  But there are also other complicating factors involved.   At the end of this article, there is a link to a thought-provoking blog by Rob Evans that addresses the factors that may (or may not) have led to American Barberry’s rarity.

Below is a typical appearance of a small American Barberry shrub.

Berberis canadensis American Barberry

Berberis canadensis
American Barberry

American Barberry has trifurcated (3 parted) spines on the branches.    Japanese Barberry has a single spine.  While Wintergreen Barberry also has trifurcated spines, its spines are proportionally much larger.  Below is a close up of the American Barberry spine.

Berberis canadensis American Barberry Spines Trifurcate

Berberis canadensis
American Barberry
Spines Trifurcate

American Barberry leaves (below) are ovate to elliptical and have 1 to 9 bristles on each leaf margin.  Wintergreen Barberry leaves are tough and evergreen, and have many firm bristles on each leaf margin.   Japanese Barberry leaves are entire (smooth margined).  This is the single best way to tell the three species apart in the field.

Berberis canadensis American Barberry Leaves

Berberis canadensis
American Barberry
Leaves

European Barberry – Berberis vulgaris

European Barberry is a  native European shrub that was introduced into cultivation in the United States, and became widely naturalized.  When it was discovered to serve as a host for wheat rust, a successful eradication program was mounted that reduced its numbers dramatically.  It is not pictured.

Wintergreen Barberry – Berberis julianae

Wintergreen Barberry originated in China, and was imported as an ornamental.  It is much less invasive than European or Japanese Barberry, but local escapes near ornamental plantings are possible, and they are known to persist for many years.

There are a few known specimens at Falls Lake, including a huge specimen at an abandoned homesite at the B. W. Wells State Recreation Area.  There are also two very large plants at a wild slope overlooking the Falls Lake Dam.  They are very difficult to see in the tangles of vegetation except when they bloom, as illustrated by the telephoto shots below.  The bloom is so profuse and bright that it can be seen from a great distance.

Berberis vulgaris European Barberry

Berberis julianae
Wintergreen Barberry

The spines of Wintergreen Barberry are trifurcate, and very long and prominent, as illustrated below.

Berberis vulgaris European Barberry Spines Trifurcate

Berberis julianae
Wintergreen Barberry
Spines Trifurcate

Wintergreen Barberry’s narrow leaves are thick, glossy, and evergreen.    The leaves are stiff and leathery, with firm prickles on the edges.  Illustrated below are the top and bottom of a typical leaf.

Berberis vulgaris European Barberry Top of Leaf

Berberis julianae
Wintergreen Barberry
Top of Leaf

Berberis vulgaris European Barberry Bottom of Leaf

Berberis julianae
Wintergreen Barberry
Bottom of Leaf

Japanese Barberry – Berberis thunbergii

Japanese Barberry does not serve as a host for wheat rust.  Since it has not been targeted by an eradication program, and is a popular cultivated shrub, it has been  widely and densely planted.   Like the European Barberry, it has become naturalized and can be very invasive, especially in New England.  It is the barberry that is most likely to be encountered in the Piedmont of North Carolina.

In the Falls Lake and Kerr Lake areas, Japanese Barberry is sometimes seen in association with two close relatives: Leatherleaf Mahonia (Berberis bealei) and Nandina or Sacred Bamboo (Nandina domestica).  Like Japanese Barberry, both are members of the Barberry family, the Berberidaceae, although Nandina is somewhat of an outlier as it lacks spines.  They have three things in common, as well as their botanical family association, that explains their presence in our parks and forests .  Their seeds are readily dispersed by birds, they can thrive in shade, and they are not eaten by  White-tailed Deer.

Japanese Barberry has a single spine (below) in constrast to the trifurcated spines of American and Wintergreen Barberry.

Berberis thunbergii Japanese Barberry Single Spine

Berberis thunbergii
Japanese Barberry
Single Spine

The leaves of Japanese Barberry are spatulate to ovate, and the margins are entire.  Leaves are illustrated below.

Berberis thunbergii Japanese Barberry Leaves

Berberis thunbergii
Japanese Barberry
Leaves

Some plants retain a single bristle at the tip of the leaf, on an otherwise smooth margin.

Berberis thunbergii Japanese Barberry Single Bristle

Berberis thunbergii
Japanese Barberry
Single Bristle

The photo below attempts to compare the leaves of three barberry species.  Berberis julianae (Wintergreen Barberry) is on the left, Berberis canadensis (American Barberry) is in the center, and Berberis thunbergii (Japanese Barberry) is on the right.

Berberis vulgaris - left Berberis canadensis center Berberis thunbergii, right

Berberis julianae – left
Berberis canadensis center
Berberis thunbergii, right

For an excellent article by Rob Evans on the state’s wild barberries, and especially about the effects of wheat rust on barberry populations,  follow this link:

http://ncplantcon.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-evil-disappears-along-with-canada.html

For more about the abandoned homesite at the B. W. Wells S. R. A., follow this link:

https://bwwellsassociation.wordpress.com/2013/05/30/unusual-tree-at-the-lowery-homesite/

Herb Amyx

Note: corrections to text and photos have been made to correct an identification error.  Many  thanks to Bryan for pointing this out.  (See comments below)

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Sesbania herbacea Arrives in the Falls Lake Area

Sesbanias are tall, scrawny weeds in the pea and bean family, the Fabaceae.  Their shape and compound leaves are said to resemble a young Mimosa sapling or a Wild Senna.  Sesbania vesicaria (Bagpod) has become common in the Falls Lake region, but Sesbania herbacea is a relatively new arrival.  Sesbania herbacea has colorful common names like Danglepod, Coffeeweed, and Colorado River Hemp.  It is a native annual with a spotty distribution in North Carolina, occurring and sometimes colonizing areas where it has been accidentally introduced.  It can even hang on as far north as Massachusetts, far from its normal home in the southern coastal plain.  From a distance, its form appears insubstantial, melting into the green of background plants, as illustrated by the following photo.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed

The stem is round and smooth, with a distinct gray bloom.  A bloom is a waxy or powdery coating on the surface of a stem that can easily be wiped away by the touch of a finger.  The bloom is especially noticeable on S. herbacea.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Stem with Bloom

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Stem with Bloom

S. herbacea has alternate, compound leaves with large numbers of opposite leaflets.  The high number of leaflets give the leaves a feathery appearance.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Compound Leaves

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Compound Leaves

A closer look at a leaf blade reveals, below, that the opposite leaflets on this plant often become alternate as the leaf develops.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Opposite (?) Leaflets

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Opposite (?) Leaflets

The outer surface of the petals of the unopened flowers are a rich, red color.  Flower color varies greatly among Sesbanias, and is not a reliable indicator of species.  The flowers of this particular plant consistently did not begin to open until 1:00 pm, and were not fully open until 3:00 pm.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Unopened Petals

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Unopened Petals

The orange upper 3/4ths of the flower is called the banner.   The yellow inner part of the banner petals are influenced by the outer red, making the petals appear orange.  The pure yellow petals drooping  straight down are called the wings.  In the second photo below, the reddish structure called the keel can be seen between the two yellow wings.  The keel petals enfold the pistil and stamens.  These flower structures are typical of members of the bean family, Fabaceae.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Open Flower

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Open Flower

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Flowers

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Flowers

Long, sickle-like fruits or pods begin to extend from the flowers that have finished their bloom.  These sickle-like pods are the easiest way to distinguish Sesbania herbacea from its close relative Sesbania vesicaria.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Developing Pods

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Developing Pods

Below is an isolated  view of the young,  developing pods.

Sesbania herbacea Coffeeweed Pods

Sesbania herbacea
Coffeeweed
Pods

The pods of Sesbania vesicaria (Bagpod) are completely different from those illustrated above.  Bagpods, as the name implies, have short, compact pods that contain only 2 large seeds each.  See below.

Close-Up of Outer and Inner Layers of Pod Sesbania vesicaria

Close-Up of Outer and Inner Layers of Pod
Sesbania vesicaria

To compare the flowers and fruits of these two close relatives, check out this link to an article on Sesbania vesicaria.

https://bwwellsassociation.wordpress.com/2013/12/20/sesbania-vesicaria-bagpod-at-falls-lake-north-Carolina/

Herb Amyx

 

 

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